Polarization: What do we know about it and what can we do to combat it?
Dr. Fernando Casal Bértoa
A specter is haunting Europe, the
specter of polarization. In the last decade vote for
anti-political-establishment parties, being them populist, radical and/or
extreme has exponentially increased. And with it the distance between political
parties and the irreconcilable differences (either ideological, personalistic
or both) among voters.
 Associate Professor at the University of Nottingham and co-director of the Research Centre for the Study of Parties and Democracy (REPRESENT).